Fertilization in flowers:

Process of Fertilization in flowers:

Fertilization, also called syngamy, occurs after pollination, which is the movement of pollen from the stamen to the carpel. It consists foo both plasmogamy, karyogamy, the fusion of the protoplasts, and the fusion of the nuclei. When pollen falls on the stigma of the flower, it begins to form a pollen tube that runs from the style to the ovary. After inserting the center-most part of the ovary it comes in contact with the egg apparatus and into one synergid. At this point the end of the pollen tube bursts and releases two sperm cells, one of which makes its way to the egg, while also losing its cell membrane and most of its protoplasm. The nucleus of the sperm then combines with the nucleus of the egg, which results in the formation of a zygote, a diploid (two carbon copies of each chromosome) cell. One can easily get the best wedding florist in houston and avail for the services like flower delivery subscription houston texas and gift delivery houston.


Whereas fertilization results only in plasmogamy or the fusion of entire sex cells, in angiosperms (flowering plants) a process known as double fertilization includes both karyogamy and plasmogamy. In the process of double fertilization, the second sperm cell later on also enters into the synergid and combines with the two polar nuclei of the central cell. Since all three nuclei are haploid, they result in a large endosperm nucleus which is triploid.

Seed development:

After the zygote is formed, it proceeds through nuclear and cellular divisions called mitosis, eventually becoming a small group of cells. One section becomes the suspensor, on the other hand, the other part becomes the embryo. A suspensor is a structure that pushes the embryo into the endosperm and is later undetectable. Two small primordia are also formed at this time, which later become cotyledons, which are used as energy reserves. Plants that grow from one of these primordia are called monocotyledons, while those that grow from two are called dicotyledons. The next stage is called the torpedo stage and involves the development of several major structures, including the radicle (embryonic root), epicotyl (embryonic stem), and hypocotyl, (root/shoot junction), in the final stage, vascular tissue develops around the seed.